The Need for Better Access to Prehospital Emergency Medical Services for Seizure Patients in Rural India: A Profile of Clinical and Etiological Characteristics Compared With Ambulance Usage in a Rural Region

Seizures are episodes of sudden, severe, disorganized neurological activity in the brain, characterized by uncontrolled movement and, in many cases, altered consciousness. Seizures account for 1% of all emergency department visits, and are a leading cause of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activation and transport. Patients who experience a seizure with no medical history of seizure disorder challenge the prehospital provider to identify an underlying cause for the event and attempt to treat immediately. s:This study aimed to identify the clinical profile of...

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Emergency Medical Dispatchers’ Ability to Determine Obvious or Expected Death Outcomes Using a Medical Priority Dispatch Protocol

Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs), at emergency communication centers that have implemented the Medical Priority Dispatch System® (MPDS) protocols, use scripted questions to interrogate people calling 9-1-1. Based on this interrogation, case determinant codes are assigned– to identify the specific patient condition and enable optimal allocation and deployment of resources to ensure appropriate field responses. MPDS determinant codes for both OBVIOUS and EXPECTED DEATH exist for patients that are clearly and irreversibly dead, or have a terminal illness accompanied...

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Is Dispatching to a Traffic Accident as Stressful as Being in One? Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Occupational Burnout in 911 Emergency Dispatchers

Emergency dispatchers are exposed to potentially traumatic events at rates that likely exceed that of emergency first responders. Although not physically present at the time of the incident, it is likely that this repeated exposure in concert with highly stressful work conditions could lead to potentially negative emotional and physical outcomes. To date few studies have examined rates of stress related pathology and subsequent impairment in emergency dispatchers. The following study takes an initial step to investigate rates of Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress and...

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Call Prioritization Time in a Fire Priority Dispatch System

This study represents a first attempt to classify a subset of time-to-dispatch in a 911 center – the call prioritization time. This time is defined as the time required to gather critical case information, after the address is obtained, and prior to notifying responder units of the call. This study characterizes call prioritization time in nine different 911 centers, all using the Fire Priority Dispatch System (FPDS). Times were examined by individual agency, overall, Methods: This was a retrospective, non-controlled, descriptive study involving nine 911 and by FPDS...

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The Distribution of Recommended Care Levels by Age, Gender, and Trauma vs Medical Classification within the Emergency Communication Nurse System

An examination of the Emergency Communications Nurse-determined Recommended Care Levels (RCLs), for calls transferred for secondary nurse-triage has not been performed.  The outcome of such an investigation would help to gain a more complete picture of the type of care ultimately recommended for these patients. The Emergency Communications Nurse System (ECNS) studied contained 22 RCLs, ranging from urgent levels, including a country-specific 3-digit number Emergency response (911), and Emergency care as soon as possible to less time-dependent, low priority levels, such...

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911 Emergency Communication Nurse Triage Reduces EMS Patient Costs and Directs Patients to High-Satisfaction Alternative Point of Care

Recent estimates indicate that more than half of all Emergency Department (ED) visits could be avoided, reducing patient costs and increasing satisfaction with care.  Since 911 is increasingly the first point of contact for many patients entering the health care system—even those with non-emergency conditions—one potential approach to decreasing emergency costs and ED overcrowding is to reinvent the 911 dispatch center as a clearinghouse for directing patients to alternative care providers.  This study presents a cost avoidance analysis of two 911 dispatch centers that...

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The Distribution of a Fire Priority Dispatch System’s™ Call Incident Types and Priority Levels in Selected U.S. Fire Agencies

The extent of fire emergencies in our communities is of great concern, not only to the public, but to the nation’s fire departments, whose role is not only to respond to them, but to mitigate and, even earlier, to prevent them.  The variety of types of fire-related emergencies reported to 911 is of significant interest to this ongoing mandate. s: The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of calls handled using a Fire Priority Dispatch System (FPDS™) in the studied agencies. Methods: This was a retrospective and non-controlled descriptive study...

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Characterization of Call Prioritization Time in a Police Priority Dispatch System™

Time-to-dispatch in a 911 center continues to be a topic of much discussion in public safety. This study represents a first attempt to classify a subset of time-todispatch, call prioritization time, the time required to gather critical information prior to dispatching the call. The study characterizes call prioritization time in two Police dispatching agencies by determining overall median call prioritization time for all Chief Complaints (CCs) in the agencies studied, then by determining specific call prioritization times for the top five most commonly-used CCs, both...

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The Distribution of 911 Triaged Call Incident Types within the Emergency Communication Nurse System™

This study examined the distribution of the MPDS® Chief Complaint protocols and determinant codes assigned by the EMD as eligible for nurse triage, as well as the distribution of the Chief Complaint protocols contained in the Emergency Communications Nurse System™ (ECNS™) secondary nurse triage process, as determined by the emergency communications nurse (ECN). Protocol distribution was also examined by patient gender. : This study characterized protocol and gender distributions to provide a better understanding of the types of patients and their associated...

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Past, Present, and Future of Emergency Dispatch Research: A Systematic Literature Review

Emergency dispatch is a relatively new field, but the growth of dispatching as a profession, along with raised expectations for help before responders arrive, has led to increased production of and interest in emergency dispatch research.  As yet, no systematic review of dispatch research has been conducted. : This study reviewed the existing literature and indicated gaps in the research as well as potentially fruitful extensions of current lines of study. Methods: Dispatch-related terms were used to search for papers in research databases (including PubMed,...

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