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Madeline R. Marks, MS

Identifying Working Structure Fires Using a Standardized Fire Dispatch Protocol System

Terry Purvis, ENP, EMD, EPD, EFD, EPD-Q, Chris Davis, EMD-I, Madeline R. Marks, MS, Greg Scott, MBA, EMD-QI, Stewart Mcgehee, EMT-P, EMD, BS, Isabel Gardett, PhD, Srilakshmi Sangaraju, MS, Christopher Olola, PhD

Oct 01, 2020|AEDR 2020 Vol. 8 Issue 2|Original Research

Structure fires, although infrequent, require significant resources and personnel to effectively complete critical tasks in a short time frame to achieve positive outcomes. While it is important to dispatch the appropriate number of resources rapidly, there is a risk to over-allocate responding resources both to the public and to the responders by responding with lights and siren. A standardized emergency fire dispatch (EFD) protocol-based system is important to quickly identify working structures fires so appropriate resources are allocated in an effective manner...

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Finding Control in the Chaos: A Case for Mindfulness in the Dispatch Center

Madeline R. Marks, MS, Annelise Cunningham, MS, Clint Bowers, PhD

Aug 24, 2018|AEDR 2018 Vol. 6 Issue 2|Original Research

Emergency dispatchers serve as a unique population to examine the impact of exposure to trauma given their continuous indirect exposure to stressful and traumatic calls. Furthermore, the unique experiences of emergency dispatchers warrants consideration of preventative measures to mitigate the negative outcomes associated with the job. Due to the continuous stress and exposure to trauma, present perceived control is offered as a variable of interest. Present perceived control (PPC) is examined in two studies by the present...

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Differences in PTSD Symptomatology Between Combat Veterans and Emergency Dispatchers

Madeline R. Marks, MS, Clint Bowers, PhD, Benjamin Trachik, Nicholas T. James, Deborah Beidel, PhD, ABPP

Sep 12, 2017|AEDR 2017 Vol. 5 Issue 2|Original Research

The current study examines posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters in the context of indirect exposure and compares symptom expression between emergency dispatchers and veterans. Given that a dispatcher's job is inherently different from that of our military, it would be expected that their PTSD symptoms are different as well. Understanding differences in presenting PTSD symptoms in emergency dispatchers relative to a group of veterans for the purposes of providing insight into prevention and treatment. We hypothesized that emergency dispatchers...

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Individual Differences in Risk Factors for ASD: An Examination of Stressful Calls to Handle

Madeline R. Marks, MS, D. E. Whitmer, N. T. James, K. E. Coch, C. Bowers, V. K. Sims, B. Trachik

Aug 01, 2016|AEDR 2016 Vol. 4 Issue 2|Research Posters

In a previous study, emergency dispatchers were surveyed to determine how stressful it was to handle various 911 calls. Given that it is not possible to change the inherent stress associated with the job of emergency dispatching, it is important to examine additional strains that contribute to making the job more stressful. This is critical for understanding the risk factors that contribute to the increased rate of stress injuries (i.e., acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, burnout) in this high-risk occupation. The current study examined the four calls that the previous study...

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Present Perceived Control: Controlling What We Can

Madeline R. Marks, MS, Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers, PhD, Christopher Olola, PhD, Greg Scott, MBA, EMD-QI

Aug 01, 2015|AEDR 2015 Vol. 3 Issue 2|Research Posters

The job of an emergency dispatcher is inherently stressful. As a 9-1-1 dispatcher, it is expected to receive a call for a multi-system trauma victim, a child drowning, an assault, amongst thousands of others, will be answered. These stressors are encountered multiple times per shift. While answering the call is controllable, the stressor on the other end is not. To examine the relationships of emergency dispatchers' home and work life, and present perceived control (how one focuses energy on what can be controlled in an uncontrollable situation) on secondary traumatic stress (STS), the effects...

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Is Dispatching to a Traffic Accident as Stressful as Being in One? Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Occupational Burnout in 911 Emergency Dispatchers

B. Trachik, Madeline R. Marks, MS, Clint Bowers, PhD, Greg Scott, MBA, EMD-QI, Christopher Olola, PhD, Isabel Gardett, PhD

Mar 22, 2015|AEDR 2015 Vol. 3 Issue 1|Original Research

Emergency dispatchers are exposed to potentially traumatic events at rates that likely exceed that of emergency first responders. Although not physically present at the time of the incident, it is likely that this repeated exposure in concert with highly stressful work conditions could lead to potentially negative emotional and physical outcomes. To date few studies have examined rates of stress related pathology and subsequent impairment in emergency dispatchers. The following study takes an initial step to investigate rates of Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress and...

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